sodium oxybate [mesh] and alcohol-related disorders [mesh]

56 articles - 24.10.14

Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 24283980, medent { em std { year 2013, month 11, day 28 }, cit { title { name "Sodium oxybate to treat alcohol dependence: 20 years of clinical experience." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Caputo F", affil str "Department of Internal Medicine, SS Annunziata Hospital, Italy, Italy. f.caputo@ausl.fe.it." }, { name ml "Bernardi M" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Addict Biol", ml-jta "Addict Biol", issn "1369-1600" }, imp { date std { year 2013, month 11 }, volume "18", issue "6", pages "901-903", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus other, date std { year 2013, month 11, day 29, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2013, month 11, day 29, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2014, month 8, day 5, hour 6, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { doi "10.1111/adb.12113", pubmed 24283980, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1111/adb.12113" } } }, mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Central Nervous System Depressants", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Clinical Trials as Topic" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Italy" }, { term "Recurrence", qual { { subh "prevention & control" } } }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Treatment Outcome" } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Central Nervous System Depressants" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 24283980, pub-type { "Journal Article", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 24283802, medent { em std { year 2014, month 1, day 9 }, cit { title { name "Sodium oxybate in the treatment of alcohol dependence: from the alcohol withdrawal syndrome to the alcohol relapse prevention." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Skala K", affil str "Medical University of Vienna, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy , Vienna , Austria." }, { name ml "Caputo F" }, { name ml "Mirijello A" }, { name ml "Vassallo G" }, { name ml "Antonelli M" }, { name ml "Ferrulli A" }, { name ml "Walter H" }, { name ml "Lesch O" }, { name ml "Addolorato G" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Expert Opin Pharmacother", ml-jta "Expert Opin Pharmacother", issn "1744-7666" }, imp { date std { year 2014, month 2 }, volume "15", issue "2", pages "245-257", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus aheadofprint, date std { year 2013, month 11, day 28 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2013, month 11, day 29, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2013, month 11, day 29, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2014, month 9, day 6, hour 6, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { doi "10.1517/14656566.2014.863278", pubmed 24283802, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1517/14656566.2014.863278" } } }, abstract "INTRODUCTION: Sodium oxybate (SMO) has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs); it was approved in Italy and Austria for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and for relapse prevention. The focus of this review is to discuss the clinical evidence on the therapeutic potential of SMO for AUDs. AREAS COVERED: This review covers the studies in patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome who received SMO for the treatment of withdrawal symptoms and the studies in patients with AUDs who received SMO to achieve total alcohol abstinence, reduction of alcohol intake, and relapse prevention. Relevant medical literature on SMO was identified by searching databases including MEDLINE and EMBASE (searches last updated 20 September 2013), bibliographies from published literature, clinical trial registries/databases, and websites. EXPERT OPINION: SMO has proved safe and effective in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in the prevention of relapses. Craving for and abuse of SMO have been reported, in particular in some subtypes of alcoholic patients, e.g., those affected by co-addiction and/or psychiatric comorbidity. Future multicenter, multinational, randomized clinical trials should be useful to optimize the treatments in relation with patients' characteristics, for example, pharmacogenetic, neurobiological, and psychological.", mesh { { term "Alcohol Drinking", qual { { subh "prevention & control" } } }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "Animals" }, { term "Drug Approval" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Recurrence", qual { { subh "prevention & control" } } }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "physiopathology" } } }, { term "Temperance" }, { term "Treatment Outcome" } }, substance { { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 24283802, pub-type { "Journal Article", "Review" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 23023077, medent { em std { year 2012, month 10, day 1 }, cit { title { name "[Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) for mid/long term treatment of alcohol dependence: a systematic review].", trans "Il gamma-idrossibutirrato (GHB) nel trattamento a medio/lungo termine della dipendenza da alcol: una revisione sistematica." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Brambilla R", affil str "Osservatorio Epidemiologico delle Dipendenze, Grugliasco, Torino, Italy." }, { name ml "Vigna-Taglianti F" }, { name ml "Avanzi G" }, { name ml "Faggiano F" }, { name ml "Leone M" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Riv Psichiatr", ml-jta "Riv Psichiatr", issn "0035-6484" }, imp { date std { year 2012, month 7 }, volume "47", issue "4", pages "269-280", language "ita", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus other, date std { year 2012, month 10, day 2, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2012, month 10, day 2, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2012, month 12, day 10, hour 6, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { doi "10.1708/1139.12554", pubmed 23023077, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1708/1139.12554" } } }, abstract "AIM: Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is used to treat alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) at short term, and to reduce alcohol relapses among alcohol dependent subjects at mid-term. The objective of this paper is to synthesize results of a Cochrane review on efficacy of GHB for treating alcohol dependence at mid-term. METHODS: The search strategy was conducted on MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and on the Cochrane Library. Pharmaceutical companies were contacted and references of papers were checked in order to identify unpublished studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCT), clinical controlled trials (CCT), and controlled prospective studies (CPS) were considered. Three authors blindly evaluated the quality of the studies and extracted the data. RESULTS: Seven RCT studies evaluating efficacy of GHB for treating alcohol dependence at mid-term were included in the review; all were conducted in Italy. GHB appears to be more effective than placebo on alcohol abstinence (RR 2.63; 1.22-5.71), controlled drinking (RR 2.43; 1.07-5.54), relapses to heavy drinking (RR 0.37; 0.21-0.63), and number of daily drinks (MD -4.60; -6.18,-3.02). GHB appears to be more effective than naltrexone on alcohol abstinence (RR 1.78; 1.21-2.62) but not on other outcomes. The effect on Alcohol Craving Scale favours GHB vs placebo (MD -4.50; -5.81,-3.19), vs naltrexone (MD -1.90; -2.45,-1.35) and vs disulfiram (MD -1.40; -1.86,-0.94). Side effects are similar to naltrexone and disulfiram. DISCUSSION: The low number of available studies, the low sample size and the low quality of the included studies limit the validity of the results and suggest the need of conducting new high-quality randomized trials with appropriate sample size.", mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Time Factors" } }, substance { { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 23023077, pub-type { "English Abstract", "Journal Article", "Review" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 22342779, medent { em std { year 2012, month 3, day 21 }, cit { title { name "Possible long-term effects of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) due to neurotoxicity and overdose." }, authors { names std { { name ml "van Amsterdam JG", affil str "National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, The Netherlands. Jan.van.Amsterdam@rivm.nl" }, { name ml "Brunt TM" }, { name ml "McMaster MT" }, { name ml "Niesink RJ" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Neurosci Biobehav Rev", ml-jta "Neurosci Biobehav Rev", issn "1873-7528" }, imp { date std { year 2012, month 4 }, volume "36", issue "4", pages "1217-1227", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus received, date std { year 2011, month 11, day 23 } }, { pubstatus revised, date std { year 2012, month 1, day 24 } }, { pubstatus accepted, date std { year 2012, month 2, day 2 } }, { pubstatus aheadofprint, date std { year 2012, month 2, day 10 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2012, month 2, day 21, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2012, month 2, day 22, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2012, month 7, day 17, hour 6, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pii "S0149-7634(12)00020-6", doi "10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.02.002", pubmed 22342779, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.02.002" } } }, abstract "In several countries, including the Netherlands, the use of GHB seems to be rising. GHB is regarded by recreational users as an innocent drug without any side effects. Recently, the number of patients in treatment due to GHB addiction sharply increased. In addition, various studies report incidents following risky GHB use or GHB overdosing. Other sedative drugs, like ketamine and alcohol have been shown to result in unintended neurotoxic harm at the level of memory and cognitive function. As outlined in the present review, GHB and ketamine have a common mode of action, which suggests that GHB may also lead to similar neurotoxicity as ketamine. GHB overdosing, as well as binge drinking (and high ketamine doses), induce profound coma which is probably neurotoxic for the brain especially in the maturing brain of young adults. It is therefore advocated to investigate possible long-term neurotoxic effects in recreational GHB users e.g. by studying the residual effects on cognition and memory.", mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { subh "physiopathology" }, { subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Anesthetics", qual { { subh "toxicity" } } }, { term "Anesthetics, Dissociative", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Animals" }, { term "Central Nervous System Depressants", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Cognition Disorders", qual { { subh "chemically induced" }, { subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Coma", qual { { subh "chemically induced" }, { subh "physiopathology" } } }, { term "Drug Overdose" }, { term "Ethanol", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Glutamic Acid", qual { { subh "physiology" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Ketamine", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Neurotoxicity Syndromes", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "physiopathology" } } }, { term "Oxidative Stress", qual { { subh "physiology" } } }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "poisoning" }, { mp TRUE, subh "toxicity" } } }, { term "Street Drugs" }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { subh "physiopathology" }, { subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Substance-Related Disorders", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "physiopathology" }, { subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase", qual { { subh "deficiency" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Anesthetics" }, { type nameonly, name "Anesthetics, Dissociative" }, { type nameonly, name "Central Nervous System Depressants" }, { type nameonly, name "Street Drugs" }, { type cas, cit "3K9958V90M", name "Ethanol" }, { type cas, cit "3KX376GY7L", name "Glutamic Acid" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "690G0D6V8H", name "Ketamine" }, { type ec, cit "1.2.1.24", name "Succinate-Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase" } }, pmid 22342779, pub-type { "Journal Article", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't", "Review" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 21742726, medent { em std { year 2012, month 1, day 30 }, cit { title { name "Substitution therapy for alcoholism: time for a reappraisal?" }, authors { names std { { name ml "Chick J", affil str "Health Sciences, Queen Margaret University, Edinburgh, UK. jonathan.chick@gmail.com" }, { name ml "Nutt DJ" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford)", ml-jta "J Psychopharmacol", issn "1461-7285" }, imp { date std { year 2012, month 2 }, volume "26", issue "2", pages "205-212", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus aheadofprint, date std { year 2011, month 7, day 8 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2011, month 7, day 12, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2011, month 7, day 12, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2012, month 8, day 22, hour 6, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pii "0269881111408463", doi "10.1177/0269881111408463", pubmed 21742726, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1177/0269881111408463" } } }, abstract "A number of compounds already in use as medications for various indications substitute for ethanol at clinically relevant brain pathways, in particular, at gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors. Nevertheless, although substitute medications have been recognized for heroin and tobacco dependence, patients with alcohol dependence are rarely offered an analogous approach. Benzodiazepines may have paradoxical effects, and abuse and dependence are known. Baclofen (GABA(B) agonist) has not been associated with dependence or misuse and has been effective in several trials in preventing relapse, although research is required to establish the optimal dosing regimen. GABA-ergic anticonvulsants, helpful in treating withdrawal, have yet to emerge as effective in relapse prevention. Clomethiazole and sodium oxybate, the latter having been shown to be effective in relapse prevention, have incurred a reputation for dependence and abuse. However, data have emerged showing that the risk of abuse of sodium oxybate is lower than many clinicians had foreseen. For a condition where existing therapies are only effective in a proportion of patients, and which has high morbidity and mortality, the time now seems right for reappraising the use of substitute prescribing for alcohol dependence.", mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Anticonvulsants", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Benzodiazepines", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Brain", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "metabolism" } } }, { term "Chlormethiazole", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions" }, { term "GABA-B Receptor Agonists", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Harm Reduction" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Anticonvulsants" }, { type nameonly, name "GABA-B Receptor Agonists" }, { type cas, cit "0C5DBZ19HV", name "Chlormethiazole" }, { type cas, cit "12794-10-4", name "Benzodiazepines" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, idnum { "G1002226/Medical Research Council" }, pmid 21742726, pub-type { "Journal Article", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 21276717, medent { em std { year 2011, month 5, day 11 }, cit { title { name "Sodium oxybate in maintaining alcohol abstinence in alcoholic patients with and without psychiatric comorbidity." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Caputo F", affil str """G. Fontana"" Centre for the Study and Multidisciplinary Treatment of Alcohol Addiction, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardioangiology and Hepatology, University of Bologna, Italy. f.caputo@ausl.fe.it" }, { name ml "Francini S" }, { name ml "Brambilla R" }, { name ml "Vigna-Taglianti F" }, { name ml "Stoppo M" }, { name ml "Del Re A" }, { name ml "Leggio L" }, { name ml "Addolorato G" }, { name ml "Zoli G" }, { name ml "Bernardi M" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Eur Neuropsychopharmacol", ml-jta "Eur Neuropsychopharmacol", issn "1873-7862" }, imp { date std { year 2011, month 6 }, volume "21", issue "6", pages "450-456", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus received, date std { year 2010, month 8, day 10 } }, { pubstatus revised, date std { year 2010, month 12, day 6 } }, { pubstatus accepted, date std { year 2010, month 12, day 21 } }, { pubstatus aheadofprint, date std { year 2011, month 1, day 26 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2011, month 2, day 1, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2011, month 2, day 1, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2011, month 9, day 29, hour 6, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pii "S0924-977X(10)00281-6", doi "10.1016/j.euroneuro.2010.12.005", pubmed 21276717, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1016/j.euroneuro.2010.12.005" } } }, abstract "Sodium oxybate (SMO) is a GABA-ergic drug currently used for the treatment of alcohol-dependence in some European countries. In particular, clinical studies have shown a role of SMO in promoting alcohol abstinence, as well as in relieving withdrawal symptoms. The aim of this study was to describe alcohol abstinence and the onset of craving for and abuse of SMO in alcohol-dependent subjects with and without psychiatric co-morbidity. Forty-eight patients were enrolled and classified into two groups: group A (20 alcoholics without any psychiatric co-morbidity) and group B (28 alcoholics with a psychiatric co-morbidity). All patients were treated with oral SMO (50 mg/kg of body weight t.i.d.) for 12 weeks. Alcohol abstinence as well as alcohol drinking during the 12 weeks of treatment did not differ between the two groups at the end of treatment (p=0.9). In addition, a reduction of alcohol intake in both groups has been observed (p<0.0001). On the other hand, craving for SMO was significantly more frequent in group B than group A (p=0.001). Cases of SMO abuse were observed in almost 10% of group B patients. In conclusion, alcohol abstinence achieved through SMO administration does not differ in patients with and without psychiatric co-morbidity. However, alcoholics with co-morbid borderline disorders appear to be at high risk of developing craving for and abuse of the drug; therefore, SMO may not be indicated in these patients.", mesh { { term "Alcohol Deterrents", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Alcoholics" }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "epidemiology" }, { subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Biomarkers, Pharmacological" }, { term "Comorbidity" }, { term "Ethanol" }, { term "Female" }, { term "GABA Agents", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "pharmacology" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Mental Disorders", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { mp TRUE, subh "epidemiology" } } }, { term "Recurrence" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { subh "drug therapy" } } }, { mp TRUE, term "Temperance" }, { term "Treatment Outcome" } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Alcohol Deterrents" }, { type nameonly, name "Biomarkers, Pharmacological" }, { type nameonly, name "GABA Agents" }, { type cas, cit "3K9958V90M", name "Ethanol" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 21276717, pub-type { "Clinical Trial", "Journal Article" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 21192167, medent { em std { year 2010, month 12, day 30 }, cit { title { name "Efficacy and safety of gamma-hydroxybutyrate in treating alcohol withdrawal syndrome in an alcohol-dependent inpatient with decompensated liver cirrhosis: a case report." }, authors { names ml { "Caputo F", "Bernardi M", "Zoli G" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "J Clin Psychopharmacol", ml-jta "J Clin Psychopharmacol", issn "1533-712X" }, imp { date std { year 2011, month 2 }, volume "31", issue "1", pages "140-141", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus other, date std { year 2010, month 12, day 31, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2010, month 12, day 31, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2011, month 10, day 14, hour 6, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { doi "10.1097/JCP.0b013e318203b36f", pii "00004714-201102000-00034", pubmed 21192167, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1097/JCP.0b013e318203b36f" } } }, mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { subh "complications" }, { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { mp TRUE, term "Hospitalization" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "etiology" } } }, { term "Male" }, { term "Middle Aged" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "etiology" } } }, { term "Temperance" }, { term "Treatment Outcome" } }, substance { { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 21192167, pub-type { "Case Reports", "Letter" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 21156757, medent { em std { year 2010, month 12, day 17 }, cit { title { name "Does gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) have a role in the treatment of alcoholism?" }, authors { names ml { "Sewell RA", "Petrakis IL" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Alcohol Alcohol.", ml-jta "Alcohol Alcohol", issn "1464-3502" }, imp { date std { year 2011, month 1 }, volume "46", issue "1", pages "1-2", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus aheadofprint, date std { year 2010, month 12, day 14 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2010, month 12, day 16, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2010, month 12, day 16, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2011, month 6, day 23, hour 6, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pii "agq086", doi "10.1093/alcalc/agq086", pubmed 21156757, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1093/alcalc/agq086" } } }, mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "GABA Agents", qual { { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Recurrence", qual { { subh "prevention & control" } } }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "GABA Agents" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 21156757, pub-type { "Editorial", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 21109543, medent { em std { year 2010, month 12, day 17 }, cit { title { name "Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) for the treatment of alcohol dependence: a call for further understanding." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Caputo F", affil str "Department of Internal Medicine, SS Annunziata Hospital, Via Vicini 2, 44042 Cento (Ferrara), Italy. f.caputo@ausl.fe.it" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Alcohol Alcohol.", ml-jta "Alcohol Alcohol", issn "1464-3502" }, imp { date std { year 2011, month 1 }, volume "46", issue "1", pages "3", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus aheadofprint, date std { year 2010, month 11, day 24 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2010, month 11, day 27, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2010, month 11, day 27, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2011, month 6, day 23, hour 6, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pii "agq083", doi "10.1093/alcalc/agq083", pubmed 21109543, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1093/alcalc/agq083" } } }, mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "GABA Agents", qual { { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Recurrence", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "prevention & control" } } }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { subh "drug therapy" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "GABA Agents" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 21109543, pub-type { "Comment", "Journal Article" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 20456291, medent { em std { year 2010, month 7, day 13 }, cit { title { name "Immunomodulating properties of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), flunitrazepam and ethanol in 'club drugs' users." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Pichini S", affil str "Department of Therapeutic Research and Medicines Evaluation, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Italy." }, { name ml "Farre M" }, { name ml "Abanades S" }, { name ml "Pacifici R" }, { name ml "Zuccaro P" }, { name ml "Langohr K" }, { name ml "de la Torre R" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Addict Biol", ml-jta "Addict Biol", issn "1369-1600" }, imp { date std { year 2010, month 7 }, volume "15", issue "3", pages "336-345", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus aheadofprint, date std { year 2010, month 4, day 29 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2010, month 5, day 12, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2010, month 5, day 12, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2010, month 11, day 3, hour 6, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pii "ADB210", doi "10.1111/j.1369-1600.2010.00210.x", pubmed 20456291, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1111/j.1369-1600.2010.00210.x" } } }, abstract "Despite the increasing concern about gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) toxicity in users, no studies have addressed GHB and other club drugs effects on the immune system under controlled administration. Lymphocyte subsets and functional responsiveness of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation were measured in 10 healthy male recreational users of GHB who participated in five experimental sessions within the framework of a clinical trial. The study was randomized, double blind, double dummy and cross-over. Drug conditions were: a single oral dose of GHB (40 mg/kg or 60 mg/kg), ethanol (0.7 g/kg), flunitrazepam (1.25 mg) and placebo. Acute GHB produced a time-dependent immune impairment in the first 4 hours after drug administration associated with an increase in cortisol secretion. Although total leukocyte count remained unchanged, there was a significant decrease in the CD4 T/CD8 T-cell ratio, as well as in the percentage of mature T lymphocytes, probably because of a decrease in both the percentage and absolute number of T helper cells. A significant decrease was also observed in natural killer cells and in functional responsiveness of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation. Flunitrazepam administration did not produce any change in the immune system, while ethanol intake produced a decrease in B lymphocytes and in lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogens. These results provide the first evidence that GHB intake under a controlled environmental setting impairs the immunological status and confirms the alterations in the immune function caused by ethanol.", mesh { { mp TRUE, term "Adjuvants, Anesthesia" }, { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcoholic Intoxication", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "immunology" } } }, { term "CD4-CD8 Ratio" }, { term "Dose-Response Relationship, Drug" }, { term "Double-Blind Method" }, { term "Flunitrazepam", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "pharmacology" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Hydrocortisone", qual { { subh "blood" } } }, { term "Immunity, Cellular", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "Immunocompetence", qual { { subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "Killer Cells, Natural", qual { { subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "Lymphocyte Activation", qual { { subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "Lymphocyte Count" }, { term "Lymphocyte Subsets", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "Male" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "pharmacology" } } }, { mp TRUE, term "Street Drugs" }, { term "Substance-Related Disorders", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "immunology" } } }, { term "T-Lymphocytes", qual { { subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer", qual { { subh "drug effects" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Adjuvants, Anesthesia" }, { type nameonly, name "Street Drugs" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "620X0222FQ", name "Flunitrazepam" }, { type cas, cit "WI4X0X7BPJ", name "Hydrocortisone" } }, pmid 20456291, pub-type { "Comparative Study", "Journal Article", "Randomized Controlled Trial", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 20166080, medent { em std { year 2010, month 2, day 18 }, cit { title { name "Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) for treatment of alcohol withdrawal and prevention of relapses." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Leone MA", affil str "SCDU Neurologia, Aziena Ospedaliero-Universitaria ""Mag giore della Carita"", C Mazzini 18, 28100 Novara, Italy." }, { name ml "Vigna-Taglianti F" }, { name ml "Avanzi G" }, { name ml "Brambilla R" }, { name ml "Faggiano F" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Cochrane Database Syst Rev", ml-jta "Cochrane Database Syst Rev", issn "1469-493X" }, imp { date std { year 2010 }, volume "2", pages "CD006266", language "eng", pubstatus epublish, history { { pubstatus other, date std { year 2010, month 2, day 19, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2010, month 2, day 19, hour 6, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2010, month 4, day 20, hour 6, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { doi "10.1002/14651858.CD006266.pub2", pubmed 20166080, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1002/14651858.CD006266.pub2" } } }, abstract "BACKGROUND: Chronic excessive alcohol consumption may lead to dependence, and to alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in case of abrupt drinking cessation. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) can prevent and suppress withdrawal symptoms, and improve the medium-term abstinence rate. A clear balance between effectiveness and harmfulness has not been yet established. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of GHB for treatment of AWS and prevention of relapse SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Cochrane Drugs and Alcohol Group' Register of Trials (October 2008), PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL (January 2005 - October 2008), EconLIT (1969 to February 2008), reference list of retrieved articles SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and Controlled Prospective Studies (CPS) evaluating the efficacy and the safety of GHB vs placebo or other pharmacological treatments. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Three authors independently extracted data and assessed the methodological quality of studies. MAIN RESULTS: Thirteen RCTs were included. Eleven studies were conducted in Italy.For withdrawal syndrome, comparing GHB 50mg with placebo, results from 1 study, 23 participants favour GHB for withdrawal symptoms: WMD -12.1 (95% CI, -15.9 to -8.29) and side effects were more frequent in the placebo group: RR 16.2 (95% CI, 1.04 to 254.9).In the comparison with Chlormetiazole, for GHB 50mg, results from 1 study, 21 participants favour GHB for withdrawal symptoms: MD -3.40 (95% CI -5.09 to -1.71), for GHB 100mg, results from 1 study, 98 participants favour anticonvulsants for side effects: RR 1.84 (95% CI 1.19 to 2.85).At mid-term, comparing GHB with placebo, results favour GHB for abstinence rate (RR 5.35; 1.28-22.4), controlled drinking (RR 2.13; 1.07-5.54), relapses (RR 0.36; 0.21-0.63), and number of daily drinks (WMD -4.60; -6.18 to -3.02). GHB performed better than NTX and Disulfiram on abstinence (RR 2.59; 1.35-4.98, RR 1.66; 0.99-2.80 respectively). The association of GHB and NTX was better than NTX on abstinence (RR 12.2; 1.79-83.9), as well was the association of NTX, GHB and Escitalopram versus Escitalopram alone (RR 4.58; 1.28-16.5). For Alcohol Craving Scale results favour GHB versus placebo (WMD -1.90; -2.45 to 1.35) and Disulfiram (WMD -1.40; -1.86 to-0.94). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: GHB 50mg is effective compared to placebo in the treatment of AWS, and in preventing relapses in previously detoxified alcoholics at 3 months follow-up, but the results of this review do not provide sufficient evidence in favour of GHB compared to benzodiazepines and Chlormethiazole for AWS prevention. GHB is better than NTX and Disulfiram in maintaining abstinence and it has a better effect on craving than placebo and Disulfiram. Side effects of GHB are not statistically different from those with BZD, NTX or Disulfiram. However, concern has been raised regarding the risk of developing addiction, misuse or abuse, especially in polydrug abusers.", mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "complications" } } }, { term "Ethanol", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic" }, { term "Recurrence", qual { { subh "prevention & control" } } }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } } }, substance { { type cas, cit "3K9958V90M", name "Ethanol" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 20166080, pub-type { "Journal Article", "Meta-Analysis", "Review" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 19379123, medent { em std { year 2009, month 4, day 24 }, cit { title { name "The therapeutic potential of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid for alcohol dependence: balancing the risks and benefits. A focus on clinical data." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Addolorato G", affil str "Catholic University of Rome, Institute of Internal Medicine, L.o A. Gemelli 8, I-00168 Rome, Italy. g.addolorato@rm.unicatt.it" }, { name ml "Leggio L" }, { name ml "Ferrulli A" }, { name ml "Caputo F" }, { name ml "Gasbarrini A" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Expert Opin Investig Drugs", ml-jta "Expert Opin Investig Drugs", issn "1744-7658" }, imp { date std { year 2009, month 5 }, volume "18", issue "5", pages "675-686", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus other, date std { year 2009, month 4, day 22, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2009, month 4, day 22, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2010, month 1, day 12, hour 6, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { doi "10.1517/13543780902905855#", pubmed 19379123, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1517/13543780902905855 " } } }, abstract "There is an increasing interest in studying the role of GABAergic medications in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The GABAergic drug gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been investigated in Europe as a possible treatment for alcohol dependence. In some European Countries, GHB has been approved as a treatment for alcohol dependence. However, this drug has also shown addictive properties, therefore raising questions about its safety in treating alcohol-dependent subjects. More recent research is focusing on the possibility of identifying alcohol-dependent subtypes without risk of developing GHB abuse. Finally, GHB and naltrexone combined together represent a possible approach deserving future investigations.", mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "physiopathology" }, { subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Animals" }, { term "Clinical Trials as Topic", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "methods" }, { subh "trends" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Risk Factors" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Substance-Related Disorders", qual { { subh "etiology" }, { subh "prevention & control" }, { subh "psychology" } } } }, substance { { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 19379123, pub-type { "Journal Article", "Review" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 19239966, medent { em std { year 2009, month 2, day 25 }, cit { title { name "What constitutes a normal ante-mortem urine GHB concentration?" }, authors { names std { { name ml "Mari F", affil str "Forensic Toxicology Division, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Legal Medicine, University of Florence, Italy. francesco.mari@unifi.it" }, { name ml "Politi L" }, { name ml "Trignano C" }, { name ml "Di Milia MG" }, { name ml "Di Padua M" }, { name ml "Bertol E" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "J Forensic Leg Med", ml-jta "J Forensic Leg Med", issn "1878-7487" }, imp { date std { year 2009, month 4 }, volume "16", issue "3", pages "148-151", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus received, date std { year 2008, month 3, day 25 } }, { pubstatus revised, date std { year 2008, month 7, day 30 } }, { pubstatus accepted, date std { year 2008, month 8, day 16 } }, { pubstatus aheadofprint, date std { year 2008, month 10, day 29 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2009, month 2, day 26, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2009, month 2, day 26, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2009, month 7, day 23, hour 9, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pii "S1752-928X(08)00178-9", doi "10.1016/j.jflm.2008.08.014", pubmed 19239966, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1016/j.jflm.2008.08.014" } } }, abstract "Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is endogenously produced within the central nervous system, however it is also used as a medication for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions, sold under the name Zyrem in the United States and Alcover in Europe. It is a very dangerous drug with a very limited safety margin, and is classified as a controlled substance in many countries. The interpretation of post-mortem studies of GHB concentrations is problematic; GHB can be detected in urine and blood from non-GHB users, both before and after death, and concentrations in both matrices may rise with prolonged storage. Because it is produced as a post-mortem artifact, forensically defensible cut-offs for post-mortem blood concentrations have yet to be established. Given the enormous degree of inter and intra-individual variation in GHB production that has been documented, it is unlikely they ever will. The important issue for forensic scientists is whether the detection of GHB in urine, in concentrations above some yet to be determined value, can be used as evidence for drug facilitated assault. In an attempt to see if a cut-off level could be determined we analyzed urine from 39 alcoholics who were being treated with known oral doses of Alcover (group 1), and compared the results with concentrations found in the urine of 30 volunteers who had no exogenous GHB intake (group 2), and 30 urine specimens taken from the alcoholics before they initiated GHB therapy (Alcover treatment group 3). More than one third (36.6%) of subjects being treated with GHB were found to have urinary GHB concentration that fell between 2.75 and 10 microg/mL. The data suggests that caution must be used when applying the currently used cut-off of 10 microg/mL.", mesh { { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "urine" } } }, { term "Female" }, { term "Forensic Toxicology" }, { term "Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Linear Models" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Reference Values" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "therapeutic use" }, { mp TRUE, subh "urine" } } } }, substance { { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 19239966, pub-type { "Comparative Study", "Journal Article" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 19173170, medent { em std { year 2009, month 9, day 29 }, cit { title { name "[Gamma-hydroxybutyrat (GHB)-dependence and -withdrawal in the case of previous alcohol dependence].", trans "Gamma-Hydroxybutyrat (GHB)-Abhangigkeit und -Entzug bei vorbestehender Alkoholabhangigkeit." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Richter C", affil str "Klinik fur Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Charite Campus Mitte, Charite Universitatsmedizin, Berlin. ch.richter@charite.de" }, { name ml "Romanowski A" }, { name ml "Kienast T" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Psychiatr Prax", ml-jta "Psychiatr Prax", issn "1439-0876" }, imp { date std { year 2009, month 10 }, volume "36", issue "7", pages "345-347", language "ger", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus epublish, date std { year 2009, month 1, day 27 } }, { pubstatus aheadofprint, date std { year 2009, month 1, day 27 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2009, month 1, day 29, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2009, month 1, day 29, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2010, month 1, day 5, hour 6, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { doi "10.1055/s-0028-1090089", pubmed 19173170, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1055/s-0028-1090089" } } }, abstract "OBJECTIVE: gamma-Hydroxybutyrat (GHB) is used medically for narcolepsy and as a narcotic. It is also a rare illegal drug. In this case report the development of a GHB-dependency against the background of a primary alcohol dependency is described. METHODS: Based on established alcohol withdrawal scales (AWSS by Wetterling, CIWA) and neuropsychological testing procedures (CGI, GAF, SKID-II, PISQ, analog-scale for Craving), the initial situation, the development of psychopathological findings, and the course of detoxification were shown. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The combined detoxication of GHB and alcohol was successfully finished by a reduction schedule of diazepam. Withdrawal-assessment scales for alcohol were helpful, but show limitations for GHB-withdrawal symptoms. The patient suffers, according to ICD-10, from a multiple drug dependence (alcohol, GHB, abstinence from amphetamines). Symptoms of insomnia, major depression, and generalized anxiety disorder can be associated with the use of GHB.", mesh { { mp TRUE, term "Adjuvants, Anesthesia", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { subh "psychology" }, { mp TRUE, subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "Comorbidity" }, { term "Drug Tolerance" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Neuropsychological Tests" }, { mp TRUE, term "Sodium Oxybate" }, { mp TRUE, term "Street Drugs" }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "diagnosis" }, { subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "Substance-Related Disorders", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "psychology" }, { mp TRUE, subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "Treatment Outcome" } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Adjuvants, Anesthesia" }, { type nameonly, name "Street Drugs" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 19173170, pub-type { "Case Reports", "English Abstract", "Journal Article" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 18293241, medent { em std { year 2008, month 2, day 22 }, cit { title { name "Are the effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) treatment partly physiological in alcohol dependence?" }, authors { names ml { "Ameisen O" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse", ml-jta "Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse", issn "0095-2990" }, imp { date std { year 2008 }, volume "34", issue "2", pages "235-236", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2008, month 2, day 23, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2008, month 6, day 6, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2008, month 2, day 23, hour 9, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pii "790777665", doi "10.1080/00952990701877177", pubmed 18293241, other { db "ELocationID doi", tag str "10.1080/00952990701877177" } } }, abstract "It has been hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in alcohol dependence could be related to ethanol-mimicking action of the drug and that GHB could reduce alcohol craving, intake and withdrawal by acting as a ""substitute"" of the alcohol in the central nervous system. Nevertheless, alcohol being the strongest trigger of craving and intake, it is difficult to ascribe reduction of craving and intake to ethanol-mimicking activity of GHB. I have recently proposed that alcohol/substance dependence could result from a GHB-deficiency-related dysphoric syndrome in which alcohol/substances would be sought to ""substitute"" for insufficient GHB effect. GHB is the sole identified naturally occurring gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA (B)) receptor agonist. Here, I propose that exogenous GHB might in fact ""substitute"" for deficient endogeneous GHB and represent true substitutive treatment for GHB-deficiency. And that baclofen and GHB could both compensate for deficient effect of the physiological GABA (B) receptor agonist(s).", mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "metabolism" }, { subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "Baclofen", qual { { subh "pharmacology" } } }, { term "GABA Agonists", qual { { subh "pharmacology" } } }, { mp TRUE, term "GABA-B Receptor Agonists" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "blood" }, { mp TRUE, subh "pharmacology" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "GABA Agonists" }, { type nameonly, name "GABA-B Receptor Agonists" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "H789N3FKE8", name "Baclofen" } }, pmid 18293241, pub-type { "Comment", "Letter" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 17673481, medent { em std { year 2007, month 10, day 15 }, cit { title { name "Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)-deficiency in alcohol-dependence?" }, authors { names ml { "Ameisen O" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Alcohol Alcohol.", ml-jta "Alcohol Alcohol", issn "0735-0414" }, imp { date std { year 2007, month 9 }, volume "42", issue "5", pages "506", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus aheadofprint, date std { year 2007, month 8, day 1 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2007, month 8, day 4, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2008, month 1, day 3, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2007, month 8, day 4, hour 9, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pii "agm058", doi "10.1093/alcalc/agm058", pubmed 17673481 } }, mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { subh "drug therapy" }, { mp TRUE, subh "genetics" }, { mp TRUE, subh "metabolism" } } }, { term "Baclofen", qual { { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "GABA Agonists", qual { { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "metabolism" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "GABA Agonists" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "H789N3FKE8", name "Baclofen" } }, pmid 17673481, pub-type { "Comment", "Letter" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 17632241, medent { em std { year 2007, month 7, day 16 }, cit { title { name "Use of alcohol during the treatment of alcohol dependence with gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: risk of severe events are avoided by the dose fractioning of the drug." }, authors { names ml { "Caputo F", "Stoppo M", "Vignoli T", "Francini S", "Lorenzini F", "Bernardi M" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "J Clin Psychopharmacol", ml-jta "J Clin Psychopharmacol", issn "0271-0749" }, imp { date std { year 2007, month 8 }, volume "27", issue "4", pages "418", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2007, month 7, day 17, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2007, month 8, day 29, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2007, month 7, day 17, hour 9, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { doi "10.1097/01.jcp.0000280314.04237.a7", pii "00004714-200708000-00028", pubmed 17632241 } }, mesh { { term "Alcohol Drinking", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { mp TRUE, subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Anesthetics, Intravenous", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Drug Interactions" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Street Drugs" }, { term "Substance-Related Disorders", qual { { subh "psychology" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Anesthetics, Intravenous" }, { type nameonly, name "Street Drugs" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 17632241, pub-type { "Comment", "Letter" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 17613970, medent { em std { year 2007, month 7, day 6 }, cit { title { name "High-risk behaviors and hospitalizations among gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) users." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Kim SY", affil str "California Poison Control System, Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94143-1369, USA. susank@calpoison.org" }, { name ml "Anderson IB" }, { name ml "Dyer JE" }, { name ml "Barker JC" }, { name ml "Blanc PD" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse", ml-jta "Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse", issn "0095-2990" }, imp { date std { year 2007 }, volume "33", issue "3", pages "429-438", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2007, month 7, day 7, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2007, month 8, day 28, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2007, month 7, day 7, hour 9, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pii "779737871", doi "10.1080/00952990701312316", pubmed 17613970, other { db "pmc", tag str "PMC2257866" }, other { db "mid", tag str "NIHMS40564" } } }, abstract "INTRODUCTION: Little is known about behaviors linked to gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) morbidity. METHODS: We surveyed 131 GHB users, using logistic regression to test the associations between the high risk behaviors and hospital treatment for GHB (26 [20%] of subjects). RESULTS: Increased risk of GHB hospital treatment was associated with: co-ingestion of ethanol (OR 5.2; 95% CI 1.7-16), driving under the influence of GHB (OR 3.2; 95%, CI 1.3-7.8),use of GHB to treat withdrawal symptoms (OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.1-7.9), and co-ingestion of ketamine (OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.1-6.7). CONCLUSION: Targeted prevention activities could focus on selected high-risk behaviors.", mesh { { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium", qual { { subh "epidemiology" } } }, { term "Alcohol-Related Disorders", qual { { subh "epidemiology" }, { subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Analgesics" }, { term "Automobile Driving", qual { { subh "psychology" }, { subh "statistics & numerical data" } } }, { term "Comorbidity" }, { term "Female" }, { term "Health Surveys" }, { term "Hospitalization", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "statistics & numerical data" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Ketamine" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Regression Analysis" }, { mp TRUE, term "Risk-Taking" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "toxicity" } } }, { term "Street Drugs", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "toxicity" } } }, { term "Substance-Related Disorders", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "epidemiology" }, { subh "psychology" } } }, { term "United States" } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Analgesics" }, { type nameonly, name "Street Drugs" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "690G0D6V8H", name "Ketamine" } }, idnum { "1 R01 DA 14935/DA/NIDA NIH HHS", "R01 DA014935-05/DA/NIDA NIH HHS" }, pmid 17613970, pub-type { "Journal Article", "Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 17613965, medent { em std { year 2007, month 7, day 6 }, cit { title { name "Gamma-hydroxybutyrate reduces both withdrawal syndrome and hypercortisolism in severe abstinent alcoholics: an open study vs. diazepam." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Nava F", affil str "Italian Society of Addiction Medicine FederSerD, Milan, Italy. navaf@ulssasolo.ven.it" }, { name ml "Premi S" }, { name ml "Manzato E" }, { name ml "Campagnola W" }, { name ml "Lucchini A" }, { name ml "Gessa GL" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse", ml-jta "Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse", issn "0095-2990" }, imp { date std { year 2007 }, volume "33", issue "3", pages "379-392", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2007, month 7, day 7, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2007, month 8, day 28, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2007, month 7, day 7, hour 9, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pii "779735400", doi "10.1080/00952990701315046", pubmed 17613965 } }, abstract "In 42 alcoholic inpatients we performed an open randomized study to compare the effects of diazepam and gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) on the suppression of severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome and hypercortisolism. Both diazepam (.5 mg/kg bodyweight, q.i.d.) and GHB (50 mg/kg bodyweight, q.i.d.) were orally administered for three weeks. During all study period, GHB was more able than diazepam in reducing both withdrawal syndrome and hypercortisolism. These effects were evident during the first week of treatment and persisted throughout the study period. The results confirm a strict correlation between high levels of plasma cortisol and alcohol withdrawal symptoms and they show a slight superiority of GHB over diazepam in the suppression of both ethanol withdrawal and hypercortisolism. Taken together, our data suggest that GHB may act as potent anti-withdrawal agent in severe abstinent alcoholics.", mesh { { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { subh "blood" }, { mp TRUE, subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "Diazepam", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Female" }, { term "Follow-Up Studies" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Hydrocortisone", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "blood" } } }, { term "Hypnotics and Sedatives", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Male" }, { term "Middle Aged" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Hypnotics and Sedatives" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "Q3JTX2Q7TU", name "Diazepam" }, { type cas, cit "WI4X0X7BPJ", name "Hydrocortisone" } }, pmid 17613965, pub-type { "Comparative Study", "Journal Article", "Randomized Controlled Trial", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 17611081, medent { em std { year 2007, month 10, day 23 }, cit { title { name "Comparing and combining gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and naltrexone in maintaining abstinence from alcohol: an open randomised comparative study." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Caputo F", affil str "G. Fontana Centre for the Study and Multidisciplinary Treatment of Alcohol Addiction, Department of Internal Medicine, Cardioangiology and Hepatology, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy. fabio-caputo@libero.it" }, { name ml "Addolorato G" }, { name ml "Stoppo M" }, { name ml "Francini S" }, { name ml "Vignoli T" }, { name ml "Lorenzini F" }, { name ml "Del Re A" }, { name ml "Comaschi C" }, { name ml "Andreone P" }, { name ml "Trevisani F" }, { name ml "Bernardi M" }, { name consortium "Alcohol Treatment Study Group" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Eur Neuropsychopharmacol", ml-jta "Eur Neuropsychopharmacol", issn "0924-977X" }, imp { date std { year 2007, month 12 }, volume "17", issue "12", pages "781-789", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus received, date std { year 2006, month 12, day 23 } }, { pubstatus revised, date std { year 2007, month 4, day 17 } }, { pubstatus accepted, date std { year 2007, month 4, day 25 } }, { pubstatus aheadofprint, date std { year 2007, month 7, day 3 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2007, month 7, day 6, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2008, month 2, day 15, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2007, month 7, day 6, hour 9, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pii "S0924-977X(07)00100-9", doi "10.1016/j.euroneuro.2007.04.008", pubmed 17611081 } }, abstract "Maintaining abstinence from alcohol is the main goal in treating alcohol dependence. Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and naltrexone (NTX), and their combination in maintaining abstinence. Fifty-five alcoholics were randomly enrolled in three groups and treated for 3 months with GHB, GHB plus NTX, and NTX, respectively. At the end of treatments, abstinence was maintained by 13 patients (72.2%) in combination group, 8 patients (40%; P=0.03) in GHB group, and one patient (5.9%; P=0.0001) in NTX group. Relapses in heavy drinking tended to occur more frequently in GHB group (15%) than in either combination group (no cases) or NTX group (5.9%), but such differences were not statistically significant. The GHB/NTX combination was more effective than either drug given alone; this suggests that the two drugs combine their different actions synergistically without suppressing the favourable effects of each other.", mesh { { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Anesthetics, Intravenous", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Drug Therapy, Combination" }, { term "Evaluation Studies as Topic" }, { term "Female" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Middle Aged" }, { term "Naltrexone", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Narcotic Antagonists", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Statistics, Nonparametric" }, { term "Time Factors" }, { term "Treatment Outcome" } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Anesthetics, Intravenous" }, { type nameonly, name "Narcotic Antagonists" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "5S6W795CQM", name "Naltrexone" } }, pmid 17611081, pub-type { "Clinical Trial", "Comparative Study", "Journal Article", "Randomized Controlled Trial", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 17165363, medent { em std { year 2006, month 12, day 14 }, cit { title { name "Comparing treatments of alcoholism on craving and biochemical measures of alcohol consumptionst." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Nava F", affil str "Department of Addiction Medicine, Drug Abuse Unit (Ser.T.), Hospital of Castelfranco Veneto, Via Ospedale, 18, 31033 Castelfranco Veneto-Treviso, Italy. felnava@tin.it" }, { name ml "Premi S" }, { name ml "Manzato E" }, { name ml "Lucchini A" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "J Psychoactive Drugs", ml-jta "J Psychoactive Drugs", issn "0279-1072" }, imp { date std { year 2006, month 9 }, volume "38", issue "3", pages "211-217", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2006, month 12, day 15, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2007, month 1, day 12, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2006, month 12, day 15, hour 9, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 17165363, doi "10.1080/02791072.2006.10399846" } }, abstract "An open randomized study was conducted to compare different treatments of alcoholism on ethanol intake, craving, and on biochemical measures of alcohol consumptions. Eighty-six alcoholics were abstinent for a mean of two weeks prior to random assignment to g-hydroxybutyrate (GHB, 50 mg/kg of body weight t.i.d), naltrexone (NTX, 50 mg/day) or disulfiram (DSF, 200 mg/ day) treatment for 12 months. All treatments were equally effective in reducing alcohol intake and in maintaining abstinence. In all patients, the treatments were able to reduce both craving and the altered biological markers of alcohol abuse. The maximum effects were observed in GHB-treated patients. The results of the present study suggest that GHB might act both as anticraving and cellular protector agent.", mesh { { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcohol Deterrents", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Alcohol Drinking", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "metabolism" }, { mp TRUE, subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { subh "drug therapy" }, { mp TRUE, subh "metabolism" }, { mp TRUE, subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Biological Markers" }, { term "Disulfiram", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Female" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Middle Aged" }, { term "Naltrexone", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Narcotic Antagonists", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Psychiatric Status Rating Scales" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Temperance" } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Alcohol Deterrents" }, { type nameonly, name "Biological Markers" }, { type nameonly, name "Narcotic Antagonists" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "5S6W795CQM", name "Naltrexone" }, { type cas, cit "TR3MLJ1UAI", name "Disulfiram" } }, pmid 17165363, pub-type { "Comparative Study", "Journal Article", "Randomized Controlled Trial", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 16168773, medent { em std { year 2005, month 9, day 19 }, cit { title { name "Gamma-hydroxybutyrate as a treatment for alcoholism." }, authors { names ml { "Caputo F", "Addolorato G", "Trevisani F", "Bernardi M" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Lancet", ml-jta "Lancet", issn "1474-547X" }, imp { date std { year 2005, month 9, day 17 }, volume "366", issue "9490", pages "981-982", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2005, month 9, day 20, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2005, month 10, day 13, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2005, month 9, day 20, hour 9, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pii "S0140-6736(05)67371-0", doi "10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67371-0", pubmed 16168773 } }, mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Substance-Related Disorders" } }, substance { { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 16168773, pub-type { "Comment", "Letter" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 16143455, medent { em std { year 2006, month 2, day 1 }, cit { title { name "Clinical features of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and gamma-butyrolactone toxicity and concomitant drug and alcohol use." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Liechti ME", affil str "Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. meliechti@dplanet.ch" }, { name ml "Kunz I" }, { name ml "Greminger P" }, { name ml "Speich R" }, { name ml "Kupferschmidt H" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Drug Alcohol Depend", ml-jta "Drug Alcohol Depend", issn "0376-8716" }, imp { date std { year 2006, month 2, day 28 }, volume "81", issue "3", pages "323-326", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus received, date std { year 2005, month 2, day 11 } }, { pubstatus revised, date std { year 2005, month 7, day 28 } }, { pubstatus accepted, date std { year 2005, month 7, day 28 } }, { pubstatus aheadofprint, date std { year 2005, month 9, day 6 } }, { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2005, month 9, day 7, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2006, month 7, day 13, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2005, month 9, day 7, hour 9, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pii "S0376-8716(05)00240-1", doi "10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.07.010", pubmed 16143455 } }, abstract "OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical features of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) toxicity. METHODS: Retrospective case-study of 65 GHB and GBL intoxications seen in an urban emergency department. RESULTS: 63% of intoxications occurred in male patients. The median age was 24 years (range 16-41 years). 65% co-ingested alcohol or illicit drugs, mostly MDMA and cocaine. 83% presented with coma. The mean+/-S.D. time to regain consciousness among comatose patients was 111+/-61 min and was significantly longer in patients who co-abused illicit drugs such as cocaine or MDMA (155+/-60 min). Bradycardia occurred in 38%, hypotension in 6% and hypothermia in 48%. Agitation was observed in 17% of all patients and was significantly more frequent in patients with alcohol co-use (29%). Vomiting occurred in 31% of all patients and tended to be more frequent in patients who co-used alcohol (39%). Management of GHB and GBL overdose was supportive. Four patients needed admission to an intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation (6%). CONCLUSIONS: Overdosing of GHB and GBL frequently results in non-reactive coma reflecting the severity of poisoning. Multiple drug use is common and significantly influences the clinical presentation.", mesh { { term "4-Butyrolactone", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "toxicity" } } }, { term "Adolescent" }, { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "epidemiology" } } }, { term "Anesthetics, Intravenous", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "toxicity" } } }, { term "Bradycardia", qual { { subh "chemically induced" }, { subh "epidemiology" } } }, { term "Case-Control Studies" }, { term "Coma", qual { { subh "chemically induced" }, { subh "epidemiology" } } }, { term "Drug Overdose" }, { term "Female" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Hypothermia", qual { { subh "chemically induced" }, { subh "epidemiology" } } }, { term "Male" }, { term "Opioid-Related Disorders", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "epidemiology" } } }, { term "Retrospective Studies" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "toxicity" } } }, { term "Solvents", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "toxicity" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Anesthetics, Intravenous" }, { type nameonly, name "Solvents" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "OL659KIY4X", name "4-Butyrolactone" } }, pmid 16143455, pub-type { "Journal Article", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 15580464, medent { em std { year 2005, month 7, day 8 }, cit { title { name "[Gamma-hydroxybutyrate--a neurotransmitter, medicine, and drug].", trans "Gamma-hydroxybuttersaure--Neurotransmitter, Medikament und Droge." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Trendelenburg G", affil str "Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Charite Campus Mitte, Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin, Schumannstrasse. george.trendelenburg@charite.de" }, { name ml "Strohle A" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Nervenarzt", ml-jta "Nervenarzt", issn "0028-2804" }, imp { date std { year 2005, month 7 }, volume "76", issue "7", pages "832", language "ger", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2004, month 12, day 8, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2005, month 10, day 6, hour 9, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2004, month 12, day 8, hour 9, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { doi "10.1007/s00115-004-1852-y", pubmed 15580464 } }, abstract "Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a short fatty acid and physiologic neurotransmitter. Initially, it was synthesized as a GABA agonist and used as a narcotic agent, because it rapidly induces sleep without major cardiovascular or respiratory side effects. Recently, a specific GHB receptor was identified, but while the clinical use of GHB as an anaesthetic was reduced due to putative pro-convulsive effects, it now is used to treat alcohol withdrawal and sleep disorders. Furthermore, GHB was postulated to be a regulator of energy metabolism, and tissue-protective effects were demonstrated in different animal models. Besides its clinical use, GHB (also called ""liquid ecstasy"") is increasingly consumed in the disco scene because of its mild sedative and euphoric effects. Intoxication from GHB is common with GHB users. For this reason and because GHB is not easy to detect, it is important to be aware of the symptoms of GHB intoxication. Moreover, some recent case reports document the danger of GHB dependence.", mesh { { term "Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium", qual { { subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Anesthetics, Intravenous", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "metabolism" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Brain", qual { { subh "drug effects" }, { subh "metabolism" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Neurotransmitter Agents", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "metabolism" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Sleep Disorders", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "adverse effects" }, { subh "metabolism" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Substance-Related Disorders", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "etiology" } } }, { term "Treatment Outcome" } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Anesthetics, Intravenous" }, { type nameonly, name "Neurotransmitter Agents" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 15580464, pub-type { "English Abstract", "Journal Article", "Review" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 12511324, medent { em std { year 2003, month 1, day 3 }, cit { title { name "Unsupported ""Efficacy"" claims of gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB)." }, authors { names ml { "Zvosec DL", "Smith SW" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Acad Emerg Med", ml-jta "Acad Emerg Med", issn "1069-6563" }, imp { date std { year 2003, month 1 }, volume "10", issue "1", pages "95-96", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2003, month 1, day 4, hour 4, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2003, month 4, day 4, hour 5, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2003, month 1, day 4, hour 4, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 12511324 } }, mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Animals" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "adverse effects" } } } }, substance { { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 12511324, pub-type { "Comment", "Letter" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 12190234, medent { em std { year 2002, month 8, day 22 }, cit { title { name "Self-medication with gamma-hydroxybutyrate to reduce alcohol intake." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Glisson JK", affil str "Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, USA." }, { name ml "Norton J" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "South. Med. J.", ml-jta "South Med J", issn "0038-4348" }, imp { date std { year 2002, month 8 }, volume "95", issue "8", pages "926-928", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2002, month 8, day 23, hour 10, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2002, month 9, day 6, hour 10, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2002, month 8, day 23, hour 10, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 12190234 } }, abstract "We describe a 52-year-old man who self-medicated with gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a widely available illicit substance, to obtain a decrease in ethanol consumption. He successfully reduced his ethanol intake over a 3-month period, but he was unable to sustain abstinence. Although case reports on the use of GHB to induce euphoria have been published, this is the first report of GHB self-medication to facilitate ethanol abstinence. This report highlights the importance of considering GHB self-medication not only for euphoric and mood altering effects, but also as a potential treatment for ethanol intake reduction.", mesh { { term "Adjuvants, Anesthesia", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Middle Aged" }, { mp TRUE, term "Self Medication" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Adjuvants, Anesthesia" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 12190234, pub-type { "Case Reports", "Journal Article" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 11825860, medent { em std { year 2002, month 2, day 4 }, cit { title { name "Double-blind controlled trial of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and clomethiazole in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Nimmerrichter AA", affil str "Anton-Proksch-Institute Vienna, Dominikanerbastei 21/49, A-1010 Vienna, Austria." }, { name ml "Walter H" }, { name ml "Gutierrez-Lobos KE" }, { name ml "Lesch OM" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Alcohol Alcohol.", ml-jta "Alcohol Alcohol", issn "0735-0414" }, imp { date std { year 2002, month 1 }, volume "37", issue "1", pages "67-73", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2002, month 2, day 5, hour 10, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2002, month 3, day 29, hour 10, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2002, month 2, day 5, hour 10, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 11825860 } }, abstract "The aim of this double-blind, comparative study was to assess the efficacy and safety of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in ameliorating the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. Newly admitted alcohol-dependent patients (n = 98) were randomized to receive either clomethiazole 1000 mg daily (CLO group) (n = 33), or 50 mg GHB/kg body wt (n = 33) or 100 mg GHB/kg body wt (n = 32). This dose was administered for 5 days, halved on day 6, and on days 7 and 8 only placebo was given. As CLO is available as capsules and GHB as syrup, a double-dummy method was used to try to ensure blindness. The groups were matched in terms of baseline demographic and alcohol-related variables. There was no difference between the three treatments in ratings of alcohol withdrawal symptoms nor requests for additional medication. After tapering off the active medication, there was no increase in withdrawal symptoms, indicating that physical tolerance did not develop to either GHB or CLO within the 5-day treatment period. The most frequently reported side-effect of GHB was transient vertigo, particularly after the evening double dose.", mesh { { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Anxiety", qual { { subh "etiology" } } }, { term "Chlormethiazole", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Double-Blind Method" }, { term "Ethanol", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Female" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Patient Dropouts" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Treatment Outcome" }, { term "Tremor", qual { { subh "etiology" } } } }, substance { { type cas, cit "0C5DBZ19HV", name "Chlormethiazole" }, { type cas, cit "3K9958V90M", name "Ethanol" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 11825860, pub-type { "Clinical Trial", "Comparative Study", "Journal Article", "Randomized Controlled Trial", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 11476260, medent { em std { year 2001, month 7, day 30 }, cit { title { name "Long-term therapy using GHB (sodium gamma hydroxybutyrate) for treatment-resistant chronic alcoholics." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Maremmani I", affil str "Department of Psychiatry, Neurobiology, Pharmacology and Biotechnology, University of Pisa, Italy." }, { name ml "Lamanna F" }, { name ml "Tagliamonte A" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "J Psychoactive Drugs", ml-jta "J Psychoactive Drugs", issn "0279-1072" }, imp { date std { year 2001, month 4 }, volume "33", issue "2", pages "135-142", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2001, month 7, day 31, hour 10, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2002, month 1, day 5, hour 10, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2001, month 7, day 31, hour 10, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 11476260, doi "10.1080/02791072.2001.10400478" } }, abstract "Thirty-five alcohol-dependent patients according to DSM-IV criteria who also met criteria for treatment resistance were treated with doses of gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB) ranging between 25 and 100 mg/kg/die in an open one-year study. The results show that no patients discontinued the program during the first month of treatment. Sixty percent of these patients successfully completed the protocol; 11.4% showed complete abstinence (full responder patients); 14.3% strongly reduced their alcohol intake (partial responder patients) and 34.3% of the patients were still under treatment after one year. Forty percent of the patients were nonresponders. The retention rate under treatment of the studied sample was statistically higher than that found during the last treatment of the same subjects. No significant differences were found between full responder and partial responder patients regarding changes in clinical features, alcohol intake or social adjustment. Patients still in treatment after one year significantly differed from nonresponder patients on all the variables investigated. A six-times/daily fractionated administration of the GHB dose was the only significant predictor of the retention rate.", mesh { { term "Adjuvants, Anesthesia", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "administration & dosage" } } }, { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Behavior, Addictive", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry)", qual { { subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Female" }, { term "Follow-Up Studies" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Middle Aged" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "administration & dosage" } } }, { term "Treatment Outcome" } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Adjuvants, Anesthesia" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 11476260, pub-type { "Journal Article" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 11369419, medent { em std { year 2001, month 5, day 22 }, cit { title { name "Effect of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid on human platelet aggregation in vitro." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Franconi F", affil str "Department of Pharmacology, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy. franconi@ssmain.uniss.it" }, { name ml "Miceli M" }, { name ml "Alberti L" }, { name ml "Boatto G" }, { name ml "Coinu R" }, { name ml "De Montis MG" }, { name ml "Tagliamonte A" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Thromb. Res.", ml-jta "Thromb Res", issn "0049-3848" }, imp { date std { year 2001, month 5, day 1 }, volume "102", issue "3", pages "255-260", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2001, month 5, day 23, hour 10, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2001, month 10, day 12, hour 10, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2001, month 5, day 23, hour 10, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 11369419, pii "S0049-3848(01)00249-3" } }, mesh { { term "Adenosine Diphosphate", qual { { subh "pharmacology" } } }, { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcohol-Related Disorders", qual { { subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Arachidonic Acid", qual { { subh "pharmacology" } } }, { term "Collagen", qual { { subh "pharmacology" } } }, { term "Dose-Response Relationship, Drug" }, { term "Drug Antagonism" }, { term "Female" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Molecular Conformation" }, { term "Platelet Aggregation", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate", qual { { subh "antagonists & inhibitors" } } }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "chemistry" }, { mp TRUE, subh "pharmacology" } } }, { term "Thrombin", qual { { subh "pharmacology" } } }, { term "Thromboxane B2", qual { { subh "biosynthesis" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate" }, { type cas, cit "27YG812J1I", name "Arachidonic Acid" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "54397-85-2", name "Thromboxane B2" }, { type cas, cit "61D2G4IYVH", name "Adenosine Diphosphate" }, { type cas, cit "9007-34-5", name "Collagen" }, { type ec, cit "3.4.21.5", name "Thrombin" } }, pmid 11369419, pub-type { "Journal Article", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 11268820, medent { em std { year 2001, month 3, day 27 }, cit { title { name "New developments in the pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Myrick H", affil str "Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of South Carolina, 67 President Street, P.O. Box 250861, Charleston, SC 29425, USA. myrickh@musc.edu" }, { name ml "Brady KT" }, { name ml "Malcolm R" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Am J Addict", ml-jta "Am J Addict", issn "1055-0496" }, imp { date std { year 2001 }, volume "10", pages "3-15", part-sup "SUPPL", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2001, month 3, day 28, hour 10, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2001, month 7, day 28, hour 10, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2001, month 3, day 28, hour 10, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 11268820 } }, abstract "Neuroscientific underpinnings and pharmacotherapeutic treatments of substance use disorders are rapidly developing areas of study. In particular, there have been exciting new developments in our understanding of the involvement of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems and the opiate and serotonin systems in the pathophysiology of alcohol withdrawal, alcohol dependence, and in subtypes of individuals with alcoholism. In this article, new developments in the pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence will be reviewed. In particular, the use of anticonvulsants in alcohol withdrawal and protracted abstinence syndromes will be discussed. New data on opiate antagonists and acamprosate, an agent that exerts actions through excitatory amino acid systems in relapse prevention, will be reviewed. Finally, there will be a review of new data concerning the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in subtypes of alcoholism and the use of combination pharmacotherapy.", mesh { { term "Adjuvants, Anesthesia", qual { { subh "administration & dosage" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Alcohol Deterrents", qual { { subh "administration & dosage" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Anticonvulsants", qual { { subh "administration & dosage" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Buspirone", qual { { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Carbamazepine", qual { { subh "administration & dosage" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Drug Therapy", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "trends" } } }, { term "Ethanol", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Naltrexone", qual { { subh "administration & dosage" }, { subh "analogs & derivatives" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Narcotic Antagonists", qual { { subh "administration & dosage" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic" }, { term "Ritanserin", qual { { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Serotonin Agents", qual { { subh "administration & dosage" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "administration & dosage" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { subh "etiology" } } }, { term "Taurine", qual { { subh "administration & dosage" }, { subh "analogs & derivatives" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Valproic Acid", qual { { subh "administration & dosage" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Vigabatrin", qual { { subh "administration & dosage" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Adjuvants, Anesthesia" }, { type nameonly, name "Alcohol Deterrents" }, { type nameonly, name "Anticonvulsants" }, { type nameonly, name "Narcotic Antagonists" }, { type nameonly, name "Serotonin Agents" }, { type cas, cit "145TFV465S", name "Ritanserin" }, { type cas, cit "1EQV5MLY3D", name "Taurine" }, { type cas, cit "33CM23913M", name "Carbamazepine" }, { type cas, cit "3K9958V90M", name "Ethanol" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "5S6W795CQM", name "Naltrexone" }, { type cas, cit "614OI1Z5WI", name "Valproic Acid" }, { type cas, cit "GR120KRT6K", name "Vigabatrin" }, { type cas, cit "N4K14YGM3J", name "acamprosate" }, { type cas, cit "TK65WKS8HL", name "Buspirone" }, { type cas, cit "TOV02TDP9I", name "nalmefene" } }, pmid 11268820, pub-type { "Journal Article", "Review" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 11106451, medent { em std { year 2002, month 2, day 26 }, cit { title { name "A 30-year-old woman with possible unknown ingestion of date rape drugs." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Kronz CS", affil str "Emergency Department, Arlington Hospital, Arlington, Va, USA. cynthia.kronz@gte.net" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "J Emerg Nurs", ml-jta "J Emerg Nurs", issn "0099-1767" }, imp { date std { year 2000, month 12 }, volume "26", issue "6", pages "544-548", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2000, month 12, day 6 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2002, month 4, day 25, hour 10, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2000, month 12, day 6, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 11106451, pii "S0099-1767(00)87617-5", doi "10.1067/men.2000.109991" } }, mesh { { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcoholic Intoxication", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "complications" } } }, { term "Anti-Anxiety Agents", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Datura stramonium", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Diagnosis, Differential" }, { term "Female" }, { term "Flunitrazepam", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Ketamine", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Rape" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { mp TRUE, term "Substance Abuse Detection" } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Anti-Anxiety Agents" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "620X0222FQ", name "Flunitrazepam" }, { type cas, cit "690G0D6V8H", name "Ketamine" } }, pmid 11106451, pub-type { "Case Reports", "Journal Article" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 10767884, medent { em std { year 2000, month 5, day 2 }, cit { title { name "Withdrawal syndromes." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Olmedo R", affil str "New York City Poison Control Center, New York, USA." }, { name ml "Hoffman RS" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Emerg. Med. Clin. North Am.", ml-jta "Emerg Med Clin North Am", issn "0733-8627" }, imp { date std { year 2000, month 5 }, volume "18", issue "2", pages "273-288", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 2000, month 4, day 18 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 2000, month 4, day 18, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 2000, month 4, day 18, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 10767884 } }, abstract "The pathophysiology of substance withdrawal is elucidated by a review of classic and cutting-edge research. The manifestation and evaluation of the associated withdrawal syndromes from ethanol, sedative-hypnotics, opioids, and baclofen, are compared. The general management of and pharmacotherapy for these patients are discussed.", mesh { { term "Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium", qual { { subh "diagnosis" }, { subh "therapy" } } }, { term "Analgesics, Opioid", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Baclofen", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Emergencies" }, { term "Emergency Treatment" }, { term "Ethanol", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Hypnotics and Sedatives", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Muscle Relaxants, Central", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { mp TRUE, term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { subh "diagnosis" }, { subh "therapy" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Analgesics, Opioid" }, { type nameonly, name "Hypnotics and Sedatives" }, { type nameonly, name "Muscle Relaxants, Central" }, { type cas, cit "3K9958V90M", name "Ethanol" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "H789N3FKE8", name "Baclofen" } }, pmid 10767884, pub-type { "Journal Article", "Review" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 9433435, medent { em std { year 1998, month 2, day 5 }, cit { title { name "Maintaining abstinence from alcohol with gamma-hydroxybutyric acid." }, authors { names ml { "Addolorato G", "Cibin M", "Capristo E", "Beghe F", "Gessa G", "Stefanini GF", "Gasbarrini G" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Lancet", ml-jta "Lancet", issn "0140-6736" }, imp { date std { year 1998, month 1, day 3 }, volume "351", issue "9095", pages "38", language "eng", retract { type in-error, exp "Lancet 1998 Mar 7;351(9104):760. Caprista E [corrected to Capristo E]" }, pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1998, month 1, day 20 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1998, month 1, day 20, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1998, month 1, day 20, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 9433435 } }, mesh { { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcohol Deterrents", qual { { subh "administration & dosage" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "Dose-Response Relationship, Drug" }, { term "Drug Administration Schedule" }, { term "Female" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "administration & dosage" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Alcohol Deterrents" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 9433435, pub-type { "Clinical Trial", "Letter", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 9376774, medent { em std { year 1997, month 11, day 12 }, cit { title { name "gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol dependence: possible craving development for the drug." }, authors { names ml { "Addolorato G", "Caputo F", "Stefanini GF", "Gasbarrini G" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Addiction", ml-jta "Addiction", issn "0965-2140" }, imp { date std { year 1997, month 8 }, volume "92", issue "8", pages "1035-1036", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1997, month 8, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1997, month 10, day 27, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1997, month 8, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 9376774 } }, mesh { { term "Alcohol Deterrents", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Substance-Related Disorders", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "etiology" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Alcohol Deterrents" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 9376774, pub-type { "Comment", "Letter", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 9113279, medent { em std { year 1997, month 7, day 22 }, cit { title { name "Manageability and tolerability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the medium term outpatient treatment of alcoholism." }, authors { names ml { "Addolorato G", "Stefanini GF", "Gasbarrini G" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.", ml-jta "Alcohol Clin Exp Res", issn "0145-6008" }, imp { date std { year 1997, month 4 }, volume "21", issue "2", pages "380", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1997, month 4, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1997, month 4, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1997, month 4, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 9113279 } }, mesh { { term "Adolescent" }, { term "Adult" }, { term "Aged" }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "Ambulatory Care" }, { term "Female" }, { term "Follow-Up Studies" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Middle Aged" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "administration & dosage" }, { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Treatment Outcome" } }, substance { { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 9113279, pub-type { "Comment", "Letter", "Multicenter Study" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 9131896, medent { em std { year 1997, month 5, day 1 }, cit { title { name "Persistence of defective serotonergic and GABAergic controls of growth hormone secretion in long-term abstinent alcoholics." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Vescovi PP", affil str "Centre for Alcohology, University of Parma, Italy." }, { name ml "Coiro V" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Alcohol Alcohol.", ml-jta "Alcohol Alcohol", issn "0735-0414" }, imp { date std { year 1997, month 1 }, volume "32", issue "1", pages "85-90", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1997, month 1, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1997, month 1, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1997, month 1, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 9131896 } }, abstract "In order to establish whether long-term abstinence from alcohol reverses the defective serotonergic and GABAergic controls of growth hormone (GH) secretion affecting alcoholic patients, the 5-HT1D serotonergic receptor agonist sumatriptan and the GABAergic agent gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) were administered to 12 normal men (32-49 years) and 22 non-depressed male alcoholic subjects (38-52 years) after 1-2 years of abstinence from alcohol. All subjects were also tested with placebos. Furthermore, tests with GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and L-arginine (which releases GH from somatostatin inhibition) were performed to determine whether GH secretion in response to its major determinants is preserved in alcoholics. Administration of placebo did not change plasma GH levels in any subject. Similar GH responses were observed in normal controls and alcoholic subjects when GHRH or arginine were administered. A significant GH increase was observed in normal controls after sumatriptan or GHB injection; in contrast, GH secretion was not modified by sumatriptan or GHB administration in alcoholic patients. These data show a persistent selective loss of 5-HT1D receptor and GHB-mediated neurotransmissions in alcoholics that a long-term abstinence from alcohol is unable to restore.", mesh { { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { subh "physiopathology" }, { mp TRUE, subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "Follow-Up Studies" }, { term "Human Growth Hormone", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "blood" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Long-Term Care" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Middle Aged" }, { term "Reference Values" }, { term "Serotonin", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "physiology" } } }, { term "Serotonin Receptor Agonists", qual { { subh "diagnostic use" } } }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "diagnostic use" } } }, { term "Sumatriptan", qual { { subh "diagnostic use" } } }, { term "gamma-Aminobutyric Acid", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "physiology" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Serotonin Receptor Agonists" }, { type cas, cit "12629-01-5", name "Human Growth Hormone" }, { type cas, cit "333DO1RDJY", name "Serotonin" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "56-12-2", name "gamma-Aminobutyric Acid" }, { type cas, cit "8R78F6L9VO", name "Sumatriptan" } }, pmid 9131896, pub-type { "Clinical Trial", "Controlled Clinical Trial", "Journal Article" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 8909463, medent { em std { year 1996, month 12, day 18 }, cit { title { name "Grievous bodily harm." }, authors { names ml { "Carrazana EJ" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Neurology", ml-jta "Neurology", issn "0028-3878" }, imp { date std { year 1996, month 11 }, volume "47", issue "5", pages "1351", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1996, month 11, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1996, month 11, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1996, month 11, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 8909463 } }, mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { subh "physiopathology" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "pharmacology" } } }, { term "Wernicke Encephalopathy", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "etiology" } } } }, substance { { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 8909463, pub-type { "Comment", "Letter" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 8879280, medent { em std { year 1997, month 2, day 10 }, cit { title { name "An open multicentric study evaluating 4-hydroxybutyric acid sodium salt in the medium-term treatment of 179 alcohol dependent subjects. GHB Study Group." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Addolorato G", affil str "Internal Medicine II Chair, Catholic University Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy." }, { name ml "Castelli E" }, { name ml "Stefanini GF" }, { name ml "Casella G" }, { name ml "Caputo F" }, { name ml "Marsigli L" }, { name ml "Bernardi M" }, { name ml "Gasbarrini G" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Alcohol Alcohol.", ml-jta "Alcohol Alcohol", issn "0735-0414" }, imp { date std { year 1996, month 7 }, volume "31", issue "4", pages "341-345", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1996, month 7, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1996, month 7, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1996, month 7, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 8879280 } }, abstract "We report the results of an ""open' multicentre study evaluating the use, tolerability and therapeutic efficacy of the sodium salt of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) for the medium-term treatment of withdrawal symptoms in 179 patients with alcohol dependence followed up as outpatients. The follow-up of patients was 6 and 12 months after drug discontinuation. Following a daily oral administration of 50 mg/kg for approximately 6 months, no serious systemic or single-organ consequences leading to drug discontinuation were reported, and tolerability was fair in all patients. Eleven subjects (10.1%) showed craving for the drug and voluntarily increased their doses (6-7 times the recommended levels). GHB led to complete abstinence during drug administration in 78.0% of the patients. A significant reduction of compulsive desire (""craving') was observed in parallel, as deduced from evaluation of a specific questionnaire, the Alcohol Craving Scale. At follow-up examination, 43 of the treated subjects remained abstinent at 6 months, and 30 subjects were abstinent for 1 year after drug discontinuation.", mesh { { term "Adolescent" }, { term "Adult" }, { term "Aged" }, { term "Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium", qual { { subh "diagnosis" }, { subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "Dose-Response Relationship, Drug" }, { term "Female" }, { term "Follow-Up Studies" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Middle Aged" }, { term "Neurologic Examination", qual { { subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Temperance", qual { { subh "psychology" } } } }, substance { { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 8879280, pub-type { "Journal Article", "Multicenter Study", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 8614515, medent { em std { year 1996, month 6, day 6 }, cit { title { name """Grievous bodily harm:"" gamma hydroxybutyrate abuse leading to a Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Friedman J", affil str "Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Roger Williams Medical Center, Providence, RI 02908, USA." }, { name ml "Westlake R" }, { name ml "Furman M" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Neurology", ml-jta "Neurology", issn "0028-3878" }, imp { date std { year 1996, month 2 }, volume "46", issue "2", pages "469-471", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1996, month 2, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1996, month 2, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1996, month 2, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 8614515 } }, abstract "Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a naturally occurring GABA-like drug used illicitly by bodybuilders. Although there are reports of several cases of GHB abuse, with a variety of nervous system complications, we present the first case associated with a Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.", mesh { { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcohol Amnestic Disorder", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "etiology" }, { subh "physiopathology" }, { subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Female" }, { term "Humans" }, { mp TRUE, term "Sodium Oxybate" }, { mp TRUE, term "Street Drugs" }, { mp TRUE, term "Substance-Related Disorders" }, { term "Suicide, Attempted" } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Street Drugs" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 8614515, pub-type { "Journal Article" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 8399519, medent { em std { year 1993, month 11, day 9 }, cit { title { name "Therapeutic gamma-hydroxybutyric acid monitoring in plasma and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Ferrara SD", affil str "Centre of Behavioural and Forensic Toxicology, University of Padova, Italy." }, { name ml "Tedeschi L" }, { name ml "Frison G" }, { name ml "Castagna F" }, { name ml "Gallimberti L" }, { name ml "Giorgetti R" }, { name ml "Gessa GL" }, { name ml "Palatini P" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "J Pharm Biomed Anal", ml-jta "J Pharm Biomed Anal", issn "0731-7085" }, imp { date std { year 1993, month 6 }, volume "11", issue "6", pages "483-487", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1993, month 6, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1993, month 6, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1993, month 6, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 8399519, pii "0731-7085(93)80161-S" } }, abstract "A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method for the determination of therapeutic levels of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in plasma and urine samples is described. GHB is converted to its lactonic form gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) which is extracted from biological fluids after the addition of the internal standard delta-valerolactone. Final GC-MS analysis is obtained under electron impact selected ion monitoring (SIM) conditions. Mean relative recoveries of GHB from plasma and urine are 75.5% (RSD% = 2.2) and 76.4% (RSD% = 2.4), respectively. The assay is linear over a plasma GHB range of 2-200 micrograms ml-1 (r = 0.999) and a urine GHB range of 2-150 micrograms ml-1 (r = 0.998). Intra- and inter-assay relative standard deviations (n = 5) determined at 10 and 100 micrograms ml-1 are below 5%. The method is simple, specific and accurate, and may be applied for analytical purposes related to pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring.", mesh { { term "4-Butyrolactone", qual { { subh "blood" }, { subh "urine" } } }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Drug Monitoring" }, { term "Ethanol", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { mp TRUE, term "Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Regression Analysis" }, { term "Sensitivity and Specificity" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "blood" }, { subh "therapeutic use" }, { mp TRUE, subh "urine" } } }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { subh "drug therapy" } } } }, substance { { type cas, cit "3K9958V90M", name "Ethanol" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "OL659KIY4X", name "4-Butyrolactone" } }, pmid 8399519, pub-type { "Journal Article" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 1389947, medent { em std { year 1992, month 11, day 20 }, cit { title { name "Pharmacokinetics of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in alcohol dependent patients after single and repeated oral doses." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Ferrara SD", affil str "Centre of Behavioural and Forensic Toxicology, University of Padova, Italy." }, { name ml "Zotti S" }, { name ml "Tedeschi L" }, { name ml "Frison G" }, { name ml "Castagna F" }, { name ml "Gallimberti L" }, { name ml "Gessa GL" }, { name ml "Palatini P" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Br J Clin Pharmacol", ml-jta "Br J Clin Pharmacol", issn "0306-5251" }, imp { date std { year 1992, month 9 }, volume "34", issue "3", pages "231-235", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1992, month 9, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1992, month 9, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1992, month 9, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 1389947, other { db "pmc", tag str "PMC1381393" } } }, abstract "1. The pharmacokinetics of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) were studied in 10 alcohol dependent subjects after single and repeated therapeutic oral doses (25 mg kg-1 every 12 h for 7 days). 2. GHB was readily absorbed and rapidly eliminated (tmax = 20-45 min; mean t1/2z 27 +/- 5 s.d. min). Urinary recovery of unchanged GHB was negligible (less than 1% of the dose). gamma-butyrolactone was not detected in either plasma or urine, indicating that lactonization of GHB does not occur in vivo. 3. The multiple-dose regimen resulted neither in accumulation of GHB nor in time-dependent modification of its pharmacokinetics. 4. In five subjects, the data were consistent with nonlinear elimination kinetics of GHB. Administration of a 50 mg kg-1 dose to these subjects resulted in significant increases in dose-normalized AUC, t1/2z and mean residence time. 5. Doubling of the dose also resulted in a significant increase in tmax with little change in Cmax. 6. At the administered doses, GHB did not accumulate in the plasma and caused no serious side effects.", mesh { { term "Administration, Oral" }, { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { subh "drug therapy" }, { mp TRUE, subh "metabolism" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Middle Aged" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "administration & dosage" }, { subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "pharmacokinetics" }, { subh "therapeutic use" } } } }, substance { { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 1389947, pub-type { "Journal Article" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 1326902, medent { em std { year 1992, month 10, day 20 }, cit { title { name "gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol dependence: a double-blind study." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Gallimberti L", affil str "Addiction Medicine Unit, USSL 21, Padova, Italy." }, { name ml "Ferri M" }, { name ml "Ferrara SD" }, { name ml "Fadda F" }, { name ml "Gessa GL" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.", ml-jta "Alcohol Clin Exp Res", issn "0145-6008" }, imp { date std { year 1992, month 8 }, volume "16", issue "4", pages "673-676", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1992, month 8, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1992, month 8, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1992, month 8, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 1326902 } }, abstract "The effect of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid on alcohol consumption and alcohol craving in alcoholics was investigated in a randomized double-blind study versus placebo. Patients were treated as outpatients during a three month period either with gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (50 mg/kg/day, divided into three daily doses) or with placebo. Of the 82 alcoholics that entered the study, 71 completed it, 36 in the gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and 35 in the placebo group. Alcohol consumption was assessed by the subject's self report. At the 3rd month of treatment, 11 patients in the gamma-hydroxybutyric acid group referred to be abstinent and 15 referred controlled drinking; while in the placebo group only two and six patients referred abstinence and controlled drinking, respectively. Serum-gammaglutamyl-transferase activity correlated with the admitted alcohol consumption. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid treatment decreased alcohol craving during the 3 months of treatment. Transient side effects were noted by six patients on gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and two on placebo. The results suggest that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid may be useful in the treatment of alcohol dependence.", mesh { { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "rehabilitation" } } }, { term "Double-Blind Method" }, { term "Female" }, { term "Follow-Up Studies" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Liver Function Tests" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "administration & dosage" }, { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { term "Substance Abuse Treatment Centers" }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { subh "diagnosis" } } } }, substance { { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 1326902, pub-type { "Clinical Trial", "Journal Article", "Randomized Controlled Trial" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 1509925, medent { em std { year 1992, month 9, day 22 }, cit { title { name "Suppression of voluntary alcohol intake in rats and alcoholics by gamma-hydroxybutyric acid: a non-GABAergic mechanism." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Biggio G", affil str "B. Loddo Department of Experimental Biology, University of Cagliari, Italy." }, { name ml "Cibin M" }, { name ml "Diana M" }, { name ml "Fadda F" }, { name ml "Ferrara SD" }, { name ml "Gallimberti L" }, { name ml "Gessa GL" }, { name ml "Mereu GP" }, { name ml "Rossetti ZL" }, { name ml "Serra M" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Adv. Biochem. Psychopharmacol.", ml-jta "Adv Biochem Psychopharmacol", issn "0065-2229" }, imp { date std { year 1992 }, volume "47", pages "281-288", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1992, month 1, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1992, month 1, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1992, month 1, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 1509925 } }, mesh { { term "Alcohol Drinking", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "prevention & control" } } }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "psychology" } } }, { term "Animals" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Rats" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "pharmacology" } } }, { term "gamma-Aminobutyric Acid", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "physiology" } } } }, substance { { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "56-12-2", name "gamma-Aminobutyric Acid" } }, pmid 1509925, pub-type { "Clinical Trial", "Journal Article", "Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't", "Review" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 1498849, medent { em std { year 1992, month 9, day 14 }, cit { title { name "Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol dependence." }, authors { names std { { name ml "Gessa GL", affil str "Bernard B. Brodie Department of Neuroscience, University of Cagliari, Italy." }, { name ml "Gallimberti L" } } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Clin Neuropharmacol", ml-jta "Clin Neuropharmacol", issn "0362-5664" }, imp { date std { year 1992 }, volume "15", pages "303A-304A", part-sup "SUPPL 1 PT A", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1992, month 1, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1992, month 1, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1992, month 1, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 1498849 } }, mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Double-Blind Method" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "adverse effects" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } } }, substance { { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 1498849, pub-type { "Clinical Trial", "Journal Article", "Randomized Controlled Trial" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 1860505, medent { em std { year 1991, month 8, day 30 }, cit { title { name "[A behavioral and biochemical analysis of the therapeutic effect of sodium oxybutyrate in alcoholic encephalopathy in progeny].", trans "Povedencheskii i biokhimicheskii analiz terapevticheskogo effekta natriia oksibutirata pri alkogol'noi entsefalopatii u potomstva." }, authors { names ml { "Trofimov SS", "Ostrovskaia RU", "Smol'nikova NM", "Nemova EP", "Bobrova OV", "Koltovaia NA", "Ushakov AN", "Tsirenina ML" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Farmakol Toksikol", ml-jta "Farmakol Toksikol", issn "0014-8318" }, imp { date std { year 1991, month 1 }, volume "54", issue "1", pages "62-64", language "rus", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1991, month 1, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1991, month 1, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1991, month 1, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 1860505 } }, abstract "The alcoholization of pregnant female rats (5 g/kg) results in a decrease of endogenous ethanol level in their offspring and distant disturbances of the conditioned reflex activities of the young rats deteriorating the formation and preservation of the skill with an emotional positive reinforcement. Sodium gamma-gydroxybutyrate administered in a dose of 50 mg/kg from the 8th to the 20th day of life prevents the above-mentioned disturbances of learning and memory, restores the level of endogenous ethanol, corrects the parameters of lipid and mediator metabolism in the brain and blood changed by prenatal alcoholization.", mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "metabolism" } } }, { term "Animals" }, { term "Behavior, Animal", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "Biogenic Amines", qual { { subh "metabolism" } } }, { term "Brain", qual { { subh "drug effects" }, { subh "metabolism" } } }, { term "Brain Diseases", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "chemically induced" }, { subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "metabolism" } } }, { term "Drug Evaluation, Preclinical" }, { term "Ethanol", qual { { subh "toxicity" } } }, { term "Female" }, { term "Learning", qual { { subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "Lipid Metabolism" }, { term "Memory", qual { { subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "Pregnancy" }, { term "Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects" }, { term "Rats" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Biogenic Amines" }, { type cas, cit "3K9958V90M", name "Ethanol" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 1860505, pub-type { "Comparative Study", "English Abstract", "Journal Article" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 2804304, medent { em std { year 1989, month 12, day 1 }, cit { title { name "[Effects of sodium oxybutyrate on the level of catecholamines and serotonin and monoamine oxidase activity in patients with alcoholism].", trans "Vliianie natriia oksibutirata na urovni katekholaminov, serotonina i aktivnost' monoaminoksidazy u bol'nykh alkogolizmom." }, authors { names ml { "Treskov VG", "Krashkina II", "Tsirenina ML", "Koltovaia NA", "Nikol'skaia GV", "Baturin AK", "Gapparov MM", "Mel'nik EI", "Maiskii AI" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Biull Eksp Biol Med", ml-jta "Biull Eksp Biol Med", issn "0365-9615" }, imp { date std { year 1989, month 7 }, volume "108", issue "7", pages "62-64", language "rus", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1989, month 7, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1989, month 7, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1989, month 7, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 2804304 } }, abstract "Sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (Na-GHB) was administered to 37 drug-free alcoholic men in placebo controlled study. The psychotropic effect was evaluated using psychometric scale of 4 ranges. Changes in plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin and platelet MAO-B activity were assessed. The psychotropic effect was observed in 27 (76%) patients. The baseline of dopamine concentration was significantly correlated with the expression of psychotropic effect. Na-GHB decreased dopamine concentration in responders. The possible involvement of dopaminergic system in the realization of psychotropic effect of Na-GHB was discussed.", mesh { { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { subh "blood" }, { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Blood Platelets", qual { { subh "enzymology" } } }, { term "Catecholamines", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "blood" } } }, { term "Dopamine", qual { { subh "blood" } } }, { term "Epinephrine", qual { { subh "blood" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Hydroxybutyrates", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Monoamine Oxidase", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "blood" } } }, { term "Norepinephrine", qual { { subh "blood" } } }, { term "Serotonin", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "blood" } } }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "pharmacology" }, { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Catecholamines" }, { type nameonly, name "Hydroxybutyrates" }, { type cas, cit "333DO1RDJY", name "Serotonin" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type ec, cit "1.4.3.4", name "Monoamine Oxidase" }, { type cas, cit "VTD58H1Z2X", name "Dopamine" }, { type cas, cit "X4W3ENH1CV", name "Norepinephrine" }, { type cas, cit "YKH834O4BH", name "Epinephrine" } }, pmid 2804304, pub-type { "Comparative Study", "English Abstract", "Journal Article" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 3410040, medent { em std { year 1988, month 9, day 27 }, cit { title { name "[Sodium oxybutyrate correction of the disorders in higher nervous activity in the progeny of alcoholized animals].", trans "Korrektsiia natriia oksibutiratom narushenii vysshei nervnoi deiatel'nosti potomstva alkogolizirovannykh zhivotnykh." }, authors { names ml { "Ostrovskaia RU", "Smol'nikova NM", "Savchenko NM", "Trofimov SS", "Nemova EP" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Farmakol Toksikol", ml-jta "Farmakol Toksikol", issn "0014-8318" }, imp { date std { year 1988, month 5 }, volume "51", issue "3", pages "89-94", language "rus", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1988, month 5, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1988, month 5, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1988, month 5, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 3410040 } }, abstract "Alcoholization of female rats before pregnancy (8 g/kg) or during pregnancy (4 g/kg) leads to disturbances in the development of the offspring higher nervous activity manifested by impaired learning abilities, disordered emotional reactivity, reduced capacity to overcome stress-situation, deficit of GABAergic inhibitory processes in the cerebral cortex. An early postnatal administration of sodium hydroxybutyrate in a dose of 50 mg/kg prevents the development of the above mentioned disturbances of the higher nervous activity and neurophysiological alterations.", mesh { { term "Alcoholism", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" }, { subh "physiopathology" } } }, { term "Animals" }, { term "Behavior, Animal", qual { { subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "Conditioning, Classical", qual { { subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "Drug Evaluation, Preclinical" }, { term "Female" }, { term "Higher Nervous Activity", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "Hydroxybutyrates", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Learning", qual { { subh "drug effects" } } }, { term "Male" }, { term "Pregnancy" }, { mp TRUE, term "Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects" }, { term "Rats" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Hydroxybutyrates" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 3410040, pub-type { "Comparative Study", "English Abstract", "Journal Article" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 6543478, medent { em std { year 1985, month 6, day 7 }, cit { title { name "Effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in rat brain and liver." }, authors { names ml { "Poldrugo F", "Snead OC 3rd" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Subst Alcohol Actions Misuse", ml-jta "Subst Alcohol Actions Misuse", issn "0191-8877" }, imp { date std { year 1984 }, volume "5", issue "5", pages "263-271", language "eng", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1984, month 1, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1984, month 1, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1984, month 1, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 6543478 } }, abstract "We examined the effect of acute and chronic ethanol administration on brain and liver gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), the effect of pyrazole on the ethanol-GHB interaction, and the effect of acetaldehyde on brain and liver GHB. Ethanol produced a marked increase in liver GHB but had no effect on GHB in brain. The ethanol effect in liver was not blocked by pyrazole. Acetaldehyde had no effect in brain or liver on GHB.", mesh { { term "Acetaldehyde", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "pharmacology" } } }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { subh "metabolism" } } }, { term "Animals" }, { term "Brain", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug effects" }, { subh "metabolism" } } }, { term "Ethanol", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "pharmacology" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Hydroxybutyrates", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "metabolism" } } }, { term "Liver", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "drug effects" }, { subh "metabolism" } } }, { term "Male" }, { term "Pyrazoles", qual { { subh "pharmacology" } } }, { term "Rats" }, { term "Rats, Inbred Strains" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "metabolism" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Hydroxybutyrates" }, { type nameonly, name "Pyrazoles" }, { type cas, cit "3K9958V90M", name "Ethanol" }, { type cas, cit "3QD5KJZ7ZJ", name "pyrazole" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "GO1N1ZPR3B", name "Acetaldehyde" } }, idnum { "K0700 484-05/PHS HHS", "NS 17117-03/NS/NINDS NIH HHS" }, pmid 6543478, pub-type { "Journal Article", "Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S." }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 6151746, medent { em std { year 1985, month 3, day 20 }, cit { title { name "[Hemosorption in narcologic practice].", trans "Gemosorbtsiia v narkologicheskoi praktike." }, authors { names ml { "Churkin EA", "Gegenava NO" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Sov Med", ml-jta "Sov Med", issn "0038-5077" }, imp { date std { year 1984 }, volume "12", pages "67-71", language "rus", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1984, month 1, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1984, month 1, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1984, month 1, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 6151746 } }, mesh { { term "Acetaldehyde", qual { { subh "blood" } } }, { term "Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium", qual { { subh "therapy" } } }, { term "Anesthesia, General" }, { term "Blood Proteins", qual { { subh "analysis" } } }, { term "Carbon Dioxide", qual { { subh "blood" } } }, { term "Catecholamines", qual { { subh "blood" } } }, { term "Ethanol", qual { { subh "adverse effects" } } }, { mp TRUE, term "Hemoperfusion" }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Opioid-Related Disorders", qual { { subh "therapy" } } }, { term "Oxygen", qual { { subh "blood" } } }, { term "Pregnanediones" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate" }, { term "Substance Withdrawal Syndrome", qual { { subh "blood" }, { subh "therapy" } } }, { term "Substance-Related Disorders", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapy" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Blood Proteins" }, { type nameonly, name "Catecholamines" }, { type nameonly, name "Pregnanediones" }, { type cas, cit "142M471B3J", name "Carbon Dioxide" }, { type cas, cit "3K9958V90M", name "Ethanol" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" }, { type cas, cit "GO1N1ZPR3B", name "Acetaldehyde" }, { type cas, cit "S88TT14065", name "Oxygen" } }, pmid 6151746, pub-type { "Journal Article", "Review" }, status medline } }


Pubmed-entry ::= { pmid 6131708, medent { em std { year 1983, month 5, day 5 }, cit { title { name "[Effect of tranquilizing agents on the blood level of endogenous ethanol in alcoholics].", trans "Vliianie trankvilizatorov na uroven' endogennogo etanola v krovi bol'nykh alkogolizmom." }, authors { names ml { "Burov IuV", "Treskov VG", "Drozdov ES", "Kovalenko AE" } }, from journal { title { iso-jta "Biull Eksp Biol Med", ml-jta "Biull Eksp Biol Med", issn "0365-9615" }, imp { date std { year 1983, month 1 }, volume "95", issue "1", pages "60-62", language "rus", pubstatus ppublish, history { { pubstatus pubmed, date std { year 1983, month 1, day 1 } }, { pubstatus medline, date std { year 1983, month 1, day 1, hour 0, minute 1 } }, { pubstatus other, date std { year 1983, month 1, day 1, hour 0, minute 0 } } } } }, ids { pubmed 6131708 } }, abstract "Experiments on alcohol addicts blood were made to study the time course of the endogenous ethanol level after a single administration of mebicar (1.5 g), a derivative of bicyclic bisuria, 50 ml of 5% sodium hydroxybutyric syrup, a derivative of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, and 20 mg diazepam, a derivative of 1,4-benzodiazepines. The clinical effect was recorded simultaneously. It was established that different tranquilizers stimulate the increase in the endogenous ethanol level as regards the spectrum of psychotropic activity. This effect was the most pronounced with mebicar and to a less measure with diazepam.", mesh { { term "Adult" }, { term "Alcoholism", qual { { subh "blood" }, { mp TRUE, subh "drug therapy" } } }, { term "Anti-Anxiety Agents", qual { { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Benzodiazepines" }, { term "Biureas", qual { { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Ethanol", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "blood" } } }, { term "Humans" }, { term "Male" }, { term "Sodium Oxybate", qual { { subh "therapeutic use" } } }, { term "Tranquilizing Agents", qual { { mp TRUE, subh "therapeutic use" } } } }, substance { { type nameonly, name "Anti-Anxiety Agents" }, { type nameonly, name "Biureas" }, { type nameonly, name "Tranquilizing Agents" }, { type cas, cit "10095-06-4", name "mebikar" }, { type cas, cit "12794-10-4", name "Benzodiazepines" }, { type cas, cit "3K9958V90M", name "Ethanol" }, { type cas, cit "502-85-2", name "Sodium Oxybate" } }, pmid 6131708, pub-type { "English Abstract", "Journal Article" }, status medline } }